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Titanic's Lookout

Titanic's Lookout


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Kandungan

Berikut adalah senarai lengkap [4] anak kapal yang diketahui yang berlayar dalam pelayaran perdana RMS Titanic.

Termasuk dalam senarai ini adalah Kumpulan Penjamin sembilan anggota dan lapan anggota kumpulan kapal, yang diberi penginapan penumpang dan diperlakukan sebagai penumpang dan anak kapal. [5] [6] Mereka juga termasuk dalam senarai penumpang yang menaiki RMS Titanic.

Penyelamat disenaraikan dengan kapal penyelamat dari mana mereka diketahui diselamatkan oleh RMS Carpathia, pada 15 April 1912.

Mangsa yang mayatnya ditemui selepas tenggelam disenaraikan dengan superskrip di sebelah nombor mayat, menunjukkan kapal pemulihan:

  • MB - CS Mackay-Bennett (badan 1–306)
  • M - CS Minia (badan 307–323)
  • MM - CGS Montmagny (badan 326-329)
  • A - SS Algerin (badan 330)
  • O - RMS Lautan (badan 331-333)
  • Saya - SS Ilford (badan 334)
  • OT - SS Ottawa[7] (badan 335)

Nombor 324 dan 325 tidak digunakan, dan enam mayat dikebumikan di laut oleh Carpathia juga tidak dihitung. [8] Beberapa mayat yang ditemui tidak dapat dikenal pasti dan oleh itu tidak semua nombor dipadankan dengan seseorang.

Setelah pulih, mayat 209 mangsa yang tenggelam dan tidak dikenali dibawa ke Halifax, Nova Scotia. Dari jumlah itu, 121 dibawa ke Tanah Perkuburan Fairview Lawn yang bukan denominasi, 59 dikembalikan, 19 dikebumikan di Tanah Perkuburan Katolik Roman Olivet, dan 10 orang dibawa ke Tanah Perkuburan Yahudi Baron de Hirsch. Mayat mangsa yang masih pulih dihantar ke anggota keluarga atau dikebumikan di laut. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Medan "Hometown" mungkin mengelirukan. Banyak kru mempunyai alamat sekunder atau sementara di Southampton, yang mereka berikan ketika menandatangani senarai kru, dan yang lain mungkin baru saja berpindah ke sana. Secara khusus, jumlah kru dari Merseyside terkurang misalnya, Ketua Jurutera Joseph Bell dan Ketua Steward Andrew Latimer tinggal bersama keluarga mereka di kawasan Liverpool. Dr Alan Scarth, dalam bukunya Titanic dan Liverpool, mengenal pasti 115 anak kapal dengan hubungan rapat dengan bandar, yang hanya 28 yang terselamat. [9]

Pegawai

Nama Umur Tanah Air Menumpang Kedudukan Kapal penyelamat Badan
Smith, Komander Edward John, RNR 62 Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England Southampton Kapten
Wilde, Leftenan Henry Tingle, RNR 39 Walton, Lancashire, England Ketua Pegawai
Murdoch, Leftenan William McMaster, RNR 39 Dalbeattie, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland Belfast Pegawai pertama
Lightoller, Sub-Leftenan Charles Herbert, RNR 38 Netley, Hampshire, England Belfast Pegawai Kedua B
Pitman, Encik Herbert John 34 Castle Cary, Somerset, England Pegawai Ketiga 5
Boxhall, Sub-Leftenan Joseph Groves, RNR 28 Hull, Yorkshire, Inggeris Pegawai Keempat 2
Lowe, Sub-Leftenan Harold Godfrey, RNR 29 Barmouth, Merionethshire, Wales Pegawai Kelima 14
Moody, Sub-Leftenan James Paul, RNR 24 Grimsby, Lincolnshire, England Belfast Pegawai Keenam

The Titanic bekerja:

  • Seorang pegawai yang mampu, juga dikenali sebagai bosun atau perahu bot, yang mempunyai kekananan atas semua anak kapal dek yang tidak berlesen. Pegawai yang berkebolehan, kru berpengalaman dari White Star Line, membantu Thomas Andrews dalam pemeriksaan hariannya di sekitar kapal.
  • 29 pelaut yang mampu, yang telah menyelesaikan latihan tambahan dan biasanya mempunyai kekananan berbanding anak kapal yang lain. Mereka menjalankan operasi kapal seharian. Di samping itu, mereka dilatih untuk mengoperasikan kapal penyelamat dan menguruskan kapal penyelamat itu sendiri. Setiap pelaut yang berkebolehan ditugaskan ke kapal penyelamat dan mengambil alih kapal itu sekiranya tidak ada pegawai yang hadir. Kira-kira lapan orang ini hilang ketika mereka pergi ke bawah geladak untuk membuka jalan E Deck dan tidak pernah dilihat lagi. [10] [11] Oleh kerana hampir semua pelaut yang tersisa telah berangkat di kapal penyelamat pertama yang dilancarkan, kapal penyelamat yang dilancarkan kemudiannya kekurangan tenaga pelatih yang terlatih untuk mengurusnya. Akibatnya, beberapa stoker dan bahkan penjaga pramugari (beberapa di antaranya tidak mempunyai pengalaman dengan sekoci) diperintahkan untuk melancarkan dan mendayung kapal. Dalam satu kejadian, seorang penumpang dengan pengalaman kapal layar (Arthur Godfrey Peuchen) dimasukkan ke dalam komando kapal penyelamat. [10] [11]
  • Dua Boatswain Mates, pelaut berpengalaman yang menguruskan garisan geladak, kren dek, winch, kapal penyelamat, dll di geladak
  • Dua Masters-at-Arms, yang, bersama dengan Ketua Pegawai, hanya memegang kunci kabinet senjata api.
  • Tujuh perantau (semuanya selamat) pelaut yang terlatih yang bekerja di dan sekitar jambatan untuk mengarahkan kapal sebagai pemandu, menguruskan bendera isyarat, dan berjaga-jaga di jambatan untuk membantu Pegawai Tugas dengan navigasi umum.
  • Pembersih dua tingkap.
  • Enam pengintai (semuanya selamat), yang bekerja dua untuk pergeseran di sarang burung gagak, pergeseran hanya berlangsung dua jam pada satu masa kerana angin yang sangat sejuk di mana pengamatan terdedah di sarang burung gagak terbuka. Tempat pengawasan biasanya dibekalkan dengan teropong untuk membantu mereka melihat jarak jauh tetapi di Titanic Teropong pelayaran sulung tidak dapat digunakan kerana terkunci, dan kunci yang diperlukan untuk mengambilnya tidak ada di kapal. [11] Dengan suhu udara pada suhu 28 ° F (−2 ° C), dan 20 mil / jam (32 km / jam) arah angin, adalah spekulasi mengenai seberapa boleh dipercayai teropong itu sekiranya mereka ada. [11] [12]

Kejuruteraan

Para jurutera bertanggungjawab untuk menjaga mesin, generator, dan peralatan mekanikal lain di Titanic berlari. Mereka adalah anggota kru dengan gaji tertinggi dan mempunyai kepakaran pendidikan dan teknikal untuk mengendalikan, menyelenggara, dan memperbaiki kilang kejuruteraan.

Tidak lama setelah meninggalkan Southampton, api ditemui di bunker arang No 6 Boiler Room. Selama beberapa hari, perapi arang batu diperincikan untuk mengesan sumber api dan memadamkannya.

Pada malam 14 April, Pegawai Kejuruteraan Kedua, John Henry Hesketh - jurutera kanan yang bertugas, dan Pemadam Kebakaran Frederick Barrett berada di No 6 Boiler memeriksa bunker arang batu dan mengesahkan api padam ketika Titanic melanda gunung es pada pukul 11.40 malam. Ia merobek bahagian kapal ini dan pasangan itu melarikan diri melalui terowong penghubung ke Noiler Boiler Room, menutup pintu sekat. Barrett kemudian memberikan keterangan di Southampton Enquiry. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Sebilangan besar kru kejuruteraan tetap berada di bawah geladak di ruang mesin dan dandang: ada yang berjuang dengan kalah untuk memastikan kapal terus bertahan dengan mengoperasikan pam di ruang depan serta menjaga wap di bilik dandang, untuk mengelakkan dandang letupan semasa bersentuhan dengan air dan lain-lain menjadikan penjana tetap berfungsi untuk mengekalkan kuasa dan lampu di seluruh kawasan Titanic sehingga dua minit sebelum kapal karam. Diperkirakan bahawa tindakan mereka menunda tenggelam selama lebih dari satu jam dan membantu membuat kapal mengapung cukup lama sehingga hampir semua kapal penyelamat dilancarkan. [14] Sebilangan lelaki yang bekerja di tingkat bawah tewas ketika air laut membanjiri bahagian ini ketika kapal menghantam gunung es.

  • 25 jurutera, serta lapan juruelektrik dan dua pembuat dandang semuanya hilang.
  • 13 anggota bomba terkemuka (Stoker Foremen) dan 163 anggota bomba (Stokers). Kapal itu mempunyai 29 dandang, masing-masing 25 berisi enam tungku, masing-masing empat berisi tiga tungku, untuk total 162 tungku. [15] Setiap anggota bomba diberi satu dandang dan tiga tungku. Daripada Titanic 'di enam bilik dandang, setiap anggota bomba terkemuka ditugaskan kepada dua daripadanya dengan 10 hingga 15 anggota bomba di bawahnya. Di sebelah setiap dandang terdapat pelongsong arang batu yang menumpukan arang batu dari bunker arang batu overhead, dan seorang pemadam kebakaran dengan sekop akan selalu memasukkan arang batu ke tiga tungku. Pergeseran untuk semua anggota bomba dan anggota mandinya adalah cuti empat jam dan lapan jam. Panas di bilik dandang biasanya melebihi 120 ° F (49 ° C), jadi pergeseran empat jam sangat menuntut. Sebilangan besar anggota bomba bekerja hanya memakai seluar dalam dan seluar pendek mereka. Daripada anggota bomba, hanya tiga anggota bomba terkemuka dan sekitar 45 anggota bomba lain yang terselamat. Beberapa anggota bomba yang terselamat masuk ke dalam kapal penyelamat yang hanya mengenakan baju dalam dan seluar pendek mereka dalam cuaca 28 ° F (−2 ° C). [12]
  • 73 perapi, atau perapi arang batu, di Titanic. Bagi kru kejuruteraan, perapi dibayar paling sedikit dan mungkin mempunyai pekerjaan yang paling buruk bagi kru. Perapi bekerja di dalam tong arang batu yang terletak di atas dan di antara dandang. Pemangkas menggunakan penyodok dan kereta sorong untuk menggerakkan arang batu di sekitar bunker untuk menjaga arang batu, dan menyodok batu bara ke bawah saluran arang batu ke petugas pemadam kebakaran di bawah untuk menyodoknya ke dalam tungku. Sekiranya terdapat terlalu banyak arang batu di satu sisi bunker arang batu, kapal itu sebenarnya akan tersenarai di sebelahnya. Semua sisa haba dari dandang naik ke bunker arang batu, dan di dalamnya, bunker kurang terang, penuh dengan habuk arang batu, dan sangat panas dari dandang. [12] Sekitar 20 daripadanya selamat.
  • 33 orang gemuk. Orang-orang ini bekerja di ruang mesin turbin dan timbal balik di samping jurutera dan mereka bertanggungjawab menjaga dan membekalkan minyak dan pelincir untuk semua peralatan mekanikal. Hanya empat dari mereka yang terselamat. [12]
  • Enam pelayan dewan kekacauan. Orang-orang ini bekerja di dapur kru untuk memasak dan menyajikan makanan untuk kru: empat melayani kru kejuruteraan dan dua melayani kru dek. Hanya seorang pramugara dari kejuruteraan selamat.
  • Peringatan untuk 244 jurutera, pemadam kebakaran, perapi, dan penyapu minyak yang kehilangan nyawa semasa tenggelamnya Titanic terletak di pelabuhan kapal pendaftaran, Liverpool. Ia dinamakan Peringatan untuk Engine Room Heroes of the Titanic.
  • Peringatan untuk Titanic Jurutera di Southampton, dari mana banyak anak kapal datang.
  • Ketua Jurutera, Joseph Bell (yang dilahirkan di Farlam), memiliki batu nisan di Farlam, dekat Brampton, Cumbria, di kuburan St Thomas a Becket Church. [16]

Berjaya

Terdapat 421 lelaki dan wanita yang ditugaskan di Victualling Department di Titanic. The Victualling Department menyediakan semua perkhidmatan untuk penghuni makanan kapal, pengemasan, dobi, perkhidmatan bilik, dan lain-lain:

  • The Purser, yang mengawasi semua bahagian Victualling dan merupakan penghubung langsung antara penumpang dan pegawai kapal.
  • 322 pelayan, yang melakukan lebih dari 57 fungsi yang berbeza di ruang makan, bilik awam, kabin dan kemudahan rekreasi setiap kelas. Sekitar 60 pelayan selamat. Pelayan yang paling terkenal adalah:
    • Bath Stewards, yang bertanggungjawab menjaga bekalan di bilik mandi umum yang digunakan oleh semua orang kecuali beberapa Penumpang Kelas Pertama.
    • Penjaga Bilik Tidur, ditugaskan untuk setiap kelas. Pelayan Bilik Darjah Pertama tidak hanya membersihkan bilik dan membuat katil, mereka juga tersedia untuk menyajikan makanan di bilik atau menolong penumpang berpakaian. Sebilangan besar pelayan kurang dibayar dan bergantung kepada petua untuk menjana pendapatan mereka. Setiap Penjaga Bilik Tidur Kelas Satu bertanggungjawab untuk tiga hingga lima bilik, Pelayan Kelas Kedua hingga 10 bilik, dan Pelayan Kelas Ketiga sebanyak 25 orang.
    • Bellboys (dikenali hari ini sebagai bellhops atau kuli), remaja lelaki berumur 14 tahun, yang membantu membawa barang penumpang ketika diperlukan.
    • "Boots" (shiners kasut), pelayan yang bertanggungjawab membersihkan dan mengilap kasut dan kasut penumpang.
    • Glory-Hole Stewards, yang fungsinya adalah membersihkan dan menjaga tempat kru (dijuluki Glory Holes, berasal dari almari di mana barang-barang berguna tetapi lain-lain disimpan).
    • Linen Stewards, bertanggungjawab untuk mencuci dan menjaga semua linen di atas kapal (cadar, tuala bilik mandi, linen meja, dll.).

    Restoran

    The À Restoran La Carte terletak di B Deck, tepat di bawah corong keempat. Itu adalah konsesi peribadi yang dikendalikan oleh A. P. Luigi Gatti, seorang peniaga Itali yang memiliki dua restoran lain di London, serta À Restoran La Carte pada RMS Olimpik. Restoran ini dibuka dari jam 8:00 pagi hingga 11:00 malam dan hanya dibuka untuk penumpang Kelas Satu. Kakitangan tidak dibayar oleh White Star Line, tetapi oleh Mr. Gatti sendiri, yang berada di Titanic untuk pelayaran sulungnya. Restoran ini mencukupi dengan tukang masak, pelayan, krew pembersihan, dan kakitangan lain. Sebilangan besar pekerja adalah warganegara Perancis atau Itali.

    Dari keseluruhan kakitangan seramai 66 orang, hanya seorang kerani lelaki dan dua juruwang wanita yang terselamat. Beberapa Titanic mangsa yang terselamat menunjukkan bahawa pekerja restoran dikurung di tempat mereka oleh pengawal untuk mengelakkan mereka dari menggegarkan sekoci. Tidak pernah disahkan sama ada ini benar atau tidak. [12]

    Nama Umur Tanah Air Menumpang Kedudukan Kapal penyelamat Badan
    Allaria, Encik Battista Antonio 30 Southampton, Hampshire, England Southampton Asst. Pelayan 221 MB
    Aspeslagh, Encik Georges 26 London, England Asst. Plateman
    Banfi, Encik Ugo 24 Finsbury, London, England Pelayan
    Basilico, Encik Giovanni 27 London, England
    Bazzi, Encik Narciso 33
    Bernardi, Encik Battista 22 Southampton, Hampshire, England Asst. Pelayan 215 MB
    Bertoldo, Encik Fioravante Giuseppe 23 Asst. Tengkorak -
    Beux, Encik David 26 London, England
    Bietrix, Encik George Baptiste 28 Lambeth, London, England Masak
    Blument, Encik Jean Baptiste 26 Southampton, Hampshire, England Pantryman
    Bochet, Encik Pierre Giuseppe 43 London, England Pelayan
    Bolhuis, Tuan Hendrik "Hennie" 21 Southampton, Hampshire, England Larder Masak
    Bowker, Cik Ruth 27 London, England Southampton Juruwang 6
    Casali, Encik Giulio 27 Soho, London, England Southampton Pelayan
    Chaboisson, Encik Adrien Finnin 25 London, England Masak Panggang
    Cornaire, Encik Marcel Raymond André 19 Asst. Masak Panggang
    Coutin, Encik Auguste Louis 28 Southampton, Hampshire, England Masak Masak
    Crovella, Encik Luigi 17 Asst. Pelayan
    De Marsico, Encik Giovanni 20 Soho, London, England
    Debreucq, Encik Maurice Emile Victor 22 London, England 244 MB
    Desvernine, Encik Louis Gabriel 20 Asst. Pastri Masak
    Donati, Encik Italo Francesco 17 Asst. Pelayan 311 M
    Dornier, Encik Louis Auguste 20 Southampton, Hampshire, England Asst. Masak Ikan
    Fey, Encik Carlo 30 London, England Skullion
    Gatti, Mr. Gaspare Antonio Pietro "Luigi" 37 Pengurus restoran 13 M
    Gilardino, Encik Vincenzo Pio 31 London, England Pelayan
    Grosclaude, Encik Gérald 24 London, England Pelayan
    Jaillet, Encik Henri Marie 28 London, England Pastri Masak 277 MB
    Janin, Encik Claude Marie 29 London, England Masak Sup
    Jeffery, Encik William Alfred 28 Southampton, Hampshire, England Pengawal
    Jouannault, Encik Georges Jules 24 Asst. Masak Sos
    Martin, Miss Margaret Edwina "Mabel" 20 London, England Juruwang 6
    Mattmann, Encik Adolf 20 Southampton, Hampshire, England Southampton Manusia Ais
    Maugé, Encik Paul Achille Maurice Germain 25 Southampton, Hampshire, England Southampton Kerani Dapur 13
    Monteverdi, Encik Giovanni 23 Southampton, Hampshire, England Southampton Masak
    Monrós, Encik Joan Xavier 20 Asst. Pelayan 27 MB
    Nannini, Encik Francesco Luigi 42 Ketua pelayan
    Pachera, Encik Jean Baptiste Stanislas 19 Southampton, Hampshire, England Asst. Larder Masak
    Pedrini, Encik Alessandro 21 Southampton, Hampshire, England Asst. Pelayan 104 MB
    Peracchio, Encik Alberto 20
    Peracchio, Encik Sebastiano 17
    Perotti, Encik Alfonso 20 London, England
    Phillips, Encik Walter John 35 Southampton, Hampshire, England Penjaga Stor
    Piatti, Encik Luigi 17 London, England Asst. Pelayan
    Piazza, Encik Pompeo 30 Pelayan 266 MB
    Poggi, Encik Emilio 28 Southampton, Hampshire, England 301 MB
    Harga, Encik Ernest 17 London, England Barman 186 MB
    Ratti, Enrico 21 Pelayan
    Ricaldone, Encik Rinaldo Renato 22 Asst. Pelayan
    Rigozzi, Encik Abele 115 MB
    Rotta, Encik Angelo Mario 23 Pelayan
    Rousseau, Encik Pierre 49 Tukang masak
    Saccaggi, Encik Giovanni Giuseppe Emilio 24 Asst. Pelayan
    Salussolia, Encik Giovanni 25 Lelaki Kaca
    Sartori, Encik Lazar 24 Asst. Lelaki Kaca
    Scavino, Encik Candido 42 Pengukir
    Sesia, Encik Giacomo 24 Pelayan
    Testoni, Encik Ercole 23 Asst. Lelaki Kaca
    Tietz, Encik Karl 27 Southampton, Hampshire, England Penjaga dapur
    Turvey, Encik Charles 16 London, England Budak Halaman
    Urbini, Encik Roberto 22 Pelayan
    Valvassori, Encik Ettore Luigi 35
    Vicat, Encik Alphonse Jean Eugene 21 Masak
    Villvarlange, Encik Pierre Léon Gabriel 19 Paris, Perancis Asst. Masak Sup
    Vine, Encik H. 18 London, England Asst. Pengawal
    Vioni, Encik Roberto 31 Pelayan
    Voegelin-Dubach, Encik Johannes 35 Pembancuh kopi
    Zanetti, Encik Minio 20 Asst. Pelayan
    Zarracchi, Encik L. 26 Southampton, Hampshire, England Butler Wain

    Kerani pos

    The Titanic Lima pegawai pos - dua orang Inggeris, tiga orang Amerika - dituduh dengan pengawasan dan pemrosesan semua surat masuk dan keluar di kapal. Pada malam bencana, lima pegawai pos itu menyambut ulang tahun ke-41 Oscar Woody. Setelah kapal itu melanda gunung es, Jago Smith dihantar untuk melaporkan kepada Kapten Smith mengenai keadaan bilik mel, mengesahkan bahawa kapal itu karam. [26] Kelima-lima pegawai menetapkan tugas untuk menyelamatkan 200 karung surat berdaftar dengan mengangkut mereka ke dek atas, dengan sedikit memikirkan keselamatan mereka sendiri. Kesemua lima kerani mel mati hanya pada bulan Mac dan mayat Woody ditemui. [27]

    Nama Umur Tanah Air Menumpang Kapal penyelamat Badan
    Gwinn, Encik William Logan 37 New York City, AS Southampton
    Mac, Encik John Starr 50 Newark, New Jersey, AS 225 MB
    Smith, Encik John Richard "Jago" 35 Truro, England
    Williamson, Encik James Bertram 35 Dublin, Ireland
    Woody, Encik Oscar Scott 41 Clifton, Virginia, AS 167 MB

    Kumpulan jaminan

    Walaupun kumpulan jaminan sembilan anggota diberi tempat tinggal penumpang, mereka juga dianggap sebagai anggota kru. Diketuai oleh pereka kapal, Thomas Andrews, tanggungjawab kumpulan itu adalah mengiringi kapal itu dalam perjalanan sulungnya untuk mengawasi setiap pekerjaan yang belum selesai atau mencari dan menyelesaikan masalah yang mungkin timbul semasa pelayaran. [28] Seluruh kumpulan itu mati dan tidak ada mayat mereka yang ditemui.


    Tenggelamnya Titanic RMS

    Apabila pegawai kanan Titanic mula mengisi kapal penyelamat, mereka meminta anak kapal untuk mengambil alih setiap kapal kecil. Baik Frederick Fleet dan Reginald Lee diminta untuk membantu dengan situasi mendayung. Lee ditugaskan sebagai kapal penyelamat nombor 13, yang diturunkan di sisi kapal karam sekitar jam 1:30 pagi. Setelah mangsa diselamatkan oleh Carpathia, dan dibawa ke New York City, Reginald Lee memberi keterangan pada pertanyaan mengenai Titanic yang dimiliki oleh Lembaga Perdagangan, tetapi kesihatan Lee tidak begitu baik. Reginald Robinson Lee meninggal dunia pada 6 Ogos 1913 akibat radang paru-paru pada usia 41 tahun.


    40 Fakta Mengenai Titanic Yang Tentunya Mereka Tidak Mengajar Kita dalam Filem

    Sarang burung gagak & rsquos Titanic, dari tempat gunung es dilihat. Flickr.

    19. Berkat gabungan, penampakan Titanic & rsquos bahkan tidak mempunyai teropong untuk mencari gunung es dari sarang burung gagak & rsquos.

    Pada masa lain & acirc & # 128 & # 152, bagaimana & # 39; seketika & # 39; ketika, ketika Titanic memasuki perairan berais pada malam 14 April, tempat itu tidak mempunyai sepasang teropong. Cukup mengapa perkara ini menjadi sumber banyak perdebatan & penyelidikan serta penyelidikan mendalam segera setelah tragedi tersebut. Mungkin rombakan kru mengetuai pelaut meninggalkan Titanic di Southampton, mengambil kunci gagak & rsquos loker & ndash seterusnya di mana teropong disimpan & ndash bersamanya. Atau pelaut yang sama, Pegawai Kedua David Blair, mungkin saja mengambil teropong ketika dia terserempak dengan pelayaran sulung pada saat-saat terakhir.


    Pemerhatian: Perspektif Manusia

    Makalah ini melihat peranan pengawasan Titanic dari mata pelaut yang berpengalaman.

    Terdapat beberapa persoalan yang timbul dan tidak semua jawapannya dapat dilihat secara terbuka. Seamanship secara tradisional adalah sesuatu yang diperoleh dengan melatih diri ke kapal atau syarikat dan belajar melalui pergaulan dengan orang lain yang mahir dalam perdagangan. Seperti semua yang lain, tentu saja, tahap kemahiran yang berbeza. Sebilangan orang tidak pernah memperoleh "kemahiran", namun kerana pemeriksaan mendalam di atas kapal ini biasanya tidak disedari untuk waktu yang lama. Orang lain sememangnya mempunyai kemahiran atau kemampuan untuk memperolehnya dengan mudah. Sebilangan orang akan berjuang dengan konsep dan tidak pernah benar-benar naik ke tahap prestasi yang selesa, baik untuk diri mereka sendiri atau pegawai yang bertanggungjawab. Mereka diakui dan biasanya beralih ke tugas yang dapat mereka laksanakan atau hanya meninggalkan laut.

    Adakah pemerhatian pada malam yang menakutkan itu, benar-benar penuh perhatian?

    Apakah tahap pengalaman mereka?

    Adakah pengawasan digunakan dengan betul oleh Pegawai yang berjaga-jaga?

    Adakah alternatif untuk tradisi?

    Apa peranan yang dimainkan oleh kekurangan "kacamata malam" yang terkenal?

    Setelah meneroka soalan-soalan ini, saya berhasrat untuk memberikan beberapa kesimpulan dan senario "apa yang mungkin berlaku".

    Pemerhatian

    (Abjad) Evans, Alfred F. Fleet, Frederick Hogg, George A. Jewell, Archie Lee, Reginald R. Symons, George T. M.

    Nama Umur pada tahun 1912 Tahun di Laut Pengalaman Sebelumnya
    Evans, A. 24 ? Dipindahkan dari "Lautan
    Armada, F. 24 12 4 tahun sebagai Kadet 4 tahun di laut Deck Boy hingga AB 4 tahun "Oceanic"
    Hogg, G. 29 13 QM pada 6 kapal Bos’n for White Star Line Lookout untuk White Star Line
    Jewell, A. 23 8 1 tahun di Sail 7 tahun "Oceanic"
    Lee, R. 42 1516 Pengukus Mel Berlayar
    Symons, G. 24 ? ?

    Terdapat kekurangan maklumat yang pasti mengenai Mr. Symons.

    Dari perkara di atas dapat diasumsikan bahwa pengamatan malam itu memiliki pengalaman dan sebenarnya akan dianggap "memenuhi syarat".

    Tonton Kumpulan dan Jam Tangan

    Kumpulan menonton yang terdiri daripada enam orang pengintai yang terlibat dalam pelayaran adalah seperti berikut:

    Alfred Evans dan George Hogg
    Archie Jewell dan George Symons
    Armada Frederick dan Reginald Lee

    Jam tangan yang diberikan adalah seperti berikut:

    Evans Hogg 1800-2000 jam (0000-0200) Jewell Symons 2000-2200 jam (0200-0400) Armada Lee 2200-2400 jam (0400-0600)

    Semua jam tangan pengawal, sejauh yang diketahui, berdiri di Crows Nest on Titanic.

    Tradisi

    Sejak awal hari pelayaran di laut, pelaut telah "melihat ke luar" untuk memastikan kesejahteraan mereka di kapal mereka. Sama ada rakit, belayar atau kapal uap, kebutuhan untuk "mencari" jelas dan tidak terpisahkan dengan keselamatan di laut. Nampaknya kebanyakan kapal dengan cuaca yang sesuai akan melihat tiang di crosstree, di busur atau semacam sarang pelindung. Ini segera mengingatkan bahawa jika penat lelah dan diposisikan di crosstree dan tertidur ... kerplunk, turun ke geladak dia akan pergi. Kemunculan sarang burung gagak secara semula jadi dari struktur pelindungnya pasti akan melindungi tempat tidur yang tertidur, atau sekurang-kurangnya menangguhkan kemunculannya secara tiba-tiba di geladak di bawah. Hampir selalu dalam teks yang berkaitan dengan kapal layar, pengawasan melaporkan penampakan dan dengan segera seorang pegawai mengejar tiang untuk melihat. Sudah tentu ini adalah perkara yang betul untuk dilakukan memandangkan yang lebih tinggi semakin jauh garis pandang ke cakrawala. Naik dan lihat lebih jauh! Kedatangan kapal penumpang yang cepat menyebabkan penggandaan penonton serentak bertugas. Konsensus antarabangsa mengenai keselamatan kapal yang dicetuskan oleh tenggelamnya Titanic mengakibatkan Safety Of Life At Sea (SOLAS) pada tahun 1914, perjanjian yang terkandung di dalamnya diadopsi pada tahun 1933. Kemudian Organisasi Maritim Antarabangsa (IMO) akhirnya meyakinkan negara-negara anggota untuk secara tidak sengaja mengadopsi Perlanggaran Peraturan (COLREGS), akhirnya melampaui peraturan negara anggota individu pada tahun 1960. Adakah kapal penumpang yang cepat pernah memasang pengawasan di busur? Saya mengesyaki bahawa jawapannya adalah "pada masa itu bergantung kepada kapal atau amalan pegawai di kapal tertentu". Bahkan pada masa-masa sebelum peraturan yang diakui secara antarabangsa, adalah menjadi amalan pelaut yang berhati-hati untuk melakukan segala daya untuk melindungi kapal mereka dan mengubah kedudukan pengawasan tidak akan berada di luar kebarangkalian. Sekiranya seorang pegawai bertugas di kapal tanpa sarang burung gagak atau pokok salib yang mudah, saya pasti busur itu akan digunakan sebagai tempat mencari.

    Perbincangan

    Adakah perhatian pada malam yang menakutkan itu?

    Saya hanya boleh berfikir tidak! Bagaimana mungkin seorang pengintai (tidak keberatan bahawa ada dua) tidak melihat kekosongan gelap yang menjulang di hadapan mereka sehingga kapal itu berada tepat di atas gunung es? Mana-mana pelaut tahu bahawa bentuk di depan akan menyekat apa yang ada di latar belakang. Ia sangat mirip dengan kapal besar yang terang hari ini, melintas di depan pelabuhan kota yang terang di belakangnya. Lampu kota mungkin menutupi lampu kapal, tetapi tidak salah kapal menghalangi lampu pantai di kawasan yang cukup besar. Kekurangan bintang di sepanjang ufuk lurus semestinya mudah dikenali oleh pengawasan Titanic.

    Apakah tahap pengalaman mereka?

    Mungkin cukup bagus memandangkan semua dipindahkan ke kapal armada terbaru. Juga kenyataan bahawa semua kapal itu ada di beberapa kapal dan pelaut berpengalaman untuk boot.

    Adakah pengawasan digunakan dengan betul oleh Pegawai yang berjaga-jaga?

    Tidak ada bukti bahawa ada interaksi serius antara petugas yang berjaga-jaga dan anggota tim yang lain sebelum mereka menonton jam 2200 atau pada bila-bila masa sebelum bertembung dengan berg. Tidak ada menelefon sarang burung gagak dengan arahan atau peringatan dari "amaran ais". Ini berbeza dengan pasukan jam tangan 2000 hingga 2200 pada jam 2130 pegawai jam tangan memberitahu pemberitahuannya untuk memerhatikan es kecil dan bergs. Pengukuhan, oleh pengawasan kemudian, tentang bahaya yang mungkin timbul telah meningkatkan tahap kesedaran pasukan ini.

    Adakah alternatif untuk tradisi?

    • Bilangan pemerhatian. Terdapat beberapa bukti bahawa pada kapal pengukus tertentu, peninjauan tambahan akan diposkan sekiranya keadaan memerlukan. Di Titanic sudah ada dua pengawasan yang diawasi dan diberikan malam yang tenang dan saya yakin ada pertimbangan diberikan untuk menambahkan pengawasan tambahan. Ini mungkin tepat kerana pegawai yang berjaga 2200-2400 tidak pernah menganggapnya bijaksana untuk "memperingatkan" pengawasan yang mereka miliki.
    • Lokasi pengeposan. Terdapat beberapa bukti bahawa membelah pandangan dengan satu di "busur" adalah perkara yang tidak bijaksana. Apabila objek besar menyekat cakrawala cahaya bintang, ia pasti lebih jelas dari bawah ke bawah, lebih banyak bintang akan tersekat.
    • Prosedur pelaporan. Tidak ada interaksi antara jambatan dan pengintai sebelum laporan gunung es mati di depan dan perintah "keras di sebelah kanan" seterusnya untuk mengubah kapal ke pelabuhan. Sebenarnya, ada sedikit waktu antara penampakan, pelaporan dan perlanggaran. Apabila anda menganggap bahawa panggilan telefon antara pencarian dan jambatan masih dalam proses atau "baru" selesai ketika perintah "Hard a starboard" diberikan itu membuat seseorang bertanya-tanya tentang kewaspadaan seluruh pasukan.

    Apa peranan yang dimainkan oleh kekurangan "kacamata malam" yang terkenal?

    Pertukaran mengenai "gelas malam" dalam pertanyaan sangat menarik. Pada satu ketika, cermin mata yang ditanyakan adalah harta peribadi pegawai kedua dan tidak pernah tersedia untuk mana-mana pengintai. Perbincangan dilakukan mengenai Opera, Marinir dan Lapangan yang timbul pada cermin mata ini atas sebab apa sukar dibayangkan. Inti dari masalah ini ialah pengimbasan cakrawala sekali-sekala dengan sepasang gelas dengan kemampuan pengumpulan cahaya yang mencukupi mungkin bermaksud bahawa pengintai akan menyedari kekurangan bintang di kawasan di depan kapal ketika mereka mengimbas. Menjadi amalan mencari untuk mengenal pasti tahap relatif cakrawala ketika melihat melalui kacamata dengan mencari garis bintang di sepanjang cakrawala. Prosedur biasa ini dan pertukaran cermin mata bolak-balik oleh kedua-dua pengintai itu mungkin telah meningkatkan atau mempertahankan tahap kesedaran yang lebih tinggi.

    Aspek Teknikal

    Tinggi Dek Ramalan Mata Di Atas Air: 50 kaki Tinggi Jambatan Mata di atas Air: 70 kaki Tinggi sarang Mata Gagak di atas air: 92 kaki (anggaran) Tinggi dari Keel ke Corong Atas: 157 Kaki Draf Kapal: 34 Kaki

    Dari Forecastle 8.3 N. Miles

    Dari Crows Nest 11.2 N. Miles

    Anggaran ketinggian Gunung Es di atas Air 60 kaki Jarak ke Horizon dari atas 9.1 N. Jarak penampakan teoritis puncak gunung es dalam cahaya siang yang cerah:

    Dari Forecastle 17.4 N. Batu Dari Jambatan 18.9 N. Batu Dari Sarang Gagak 20.3 N. Batu

    Dari atas dapat dilihat bahawa gunung es yang dilihat pada waktu malam sebagai kawasan HITAM, kekurangan bintang hingga ke cakrawala yang ditunjukkan oleh cakerawala yang lain, seharusnya menjadi semakin dominan ketika kapal mengarah ke arahnya pada malam yang menakutkan itu.

    Pada kelajuan 21.5 knot, berg seharusnya sudah kelihatan selama satu jam (56 minit) sebelum perlanggaran.

    Memandangkan perlanggaran berlaku pada 2340 jam, pengawasan seharusnya disesuaikan dengan kegelapan dan ketika berg semakin dekat, mereka seharusnya mempunyai kawasan yang semakin besar tanpa bintang latar yang malam yang cerah dan tenang. (Malam yang benar-benar tenang bahkan akan memantulkan bintang-bintang di langit di air di depan, sesuatu yang pasti akan disekat oleh gunung es)

    Bagaimana jika?

    Pemerhatian telah dibahagi dengan satu di busur? Jam jambatan lebih diberi perhatian? Pegawai jam tangan dan atau pengintai terganggu oleh penumpang di geladak? Kapal belum berpusing ... tidak ada penggera penglihatan yang diberikan?

    Perubahan pada salah satu soalan yang diajukan di atas boleh mengubah arah sejarah!

    Kesimpulannya

    Kurangnya berhati-hati di kawasan es yang diketahui, entah dilaporkan atau tidak, seharusnya menunjukkan tahap kehati-hatian yang jauh lebih besar dari pihak petugas Titanic. Unjuran DR sederhana semestinya menunjukkan bahaya yang wujud. Dengan amaran telegraf yang diterima, bahaya diketahui. Kegagalan Kapten Smith untuk menanamkan tahap mendesak dalam petugas pengawasnya adalah permulaan rantai kesalahan yang masih belum putus. Sekiranya para pegawai memerhatikan dengan lebih dekat, sekiranya mereka berkomunikasi dengan pengawasan mereka dan mungkin, lebih baik lagi, memisahkan mereka dengan satu di haluan, peringatan tambahan atau dua minit boleh membuat perbezaan pada malam itu. Ingat bahawa 22 knot sama dengan lebih dari 2228 kaki setiap minit. Tidak terlalu banyak imaginasi untuk membayangkan giliran lebih awal dan benar-benar kehilangan gunung es. Ukuran berg, malam yang cerah, bintang-bintang ... semuanya disukai oleh pengesanan sebelumnya. Kegagalan pihak Titanic dan Pegawai Pengawal untuk merasakan massa hitam, menyekat garis bintang melintasi cakrawala di depan adalah, pada pendapat saya, adalah kunci kepada bencana yang menimpa.

    Beberapa bahagian menarik ditambahkan di bawah yang sebenarnya kerana Titanic, menjadikan laut lebih selamat bagi semua yang mengikuti.

    SOLAS: Pengenalan dan sejarah

    Konvensyen SOLAS dalam bentuk berturut-turut umumnya dianggap sebagai yang paling penting dari semua perjanjian antarabangsa mengenai keselamatan kapal dagang. Versi pertama diadopsi pada tahun 1914, sebagai tindak balas terhadap bencana Titanic, yang kedua pada tahun 1929, yang ketiga pada tahun 1948 dan yang keempat pada tahun 1960.

    Konvensyen 1960 - yang diadopsi pada 17 Jun 1960 dan mula dikuatkuasakan pada 26 Mei 1965 - adalah tugas besar pertama bagi IMO setelah penubuhan Organisasi dan ini merupakan langkah maju yang cukup besar dalam memodenkan peraturan dan mengikuti perkembangan teknikal di industri perkapalan.

    Tujuannya adalah untuk memastikan Konvensyen dikemas kini dengan pindaan berkala tetapi dalam praktiknya prosedur pindaan yang dimasukkan terbukti sangat lambat. Menjadi jelas bahawa mustahil untuk memastikan berlakunya pindaan dalam jangka masa yang munasabah.

    Akibatnya, Konvensyen yang sama sekali baru diadopsi pada tahun 1974 yang merangkumi tidak hanya pindaan yang disepakati hingga tarikh itu, tetapi prosedur pindaan baru - prosedur penerimaan diam-diam - yang dirancang untuk memastikan bahawa perubahan dapat dilakukan dalam waktu yang ditentukan (dan dapat diterima singkat) tempoh masa.

    Daripada mewajibkan bahawa pindaan akan berkuatkuasa setelah diterima oleh, misalnya, dua pertiga dari Pihak, prosedur penerimaan diam-diam memperuntukkan bahawa pindaan akan mula berlaku pada tarikh yang ditentukan kecuali, sebelum tarikh tersebut, keberatan terhadap pindaan tersebut diterima dari sebilangan Pihak yang dipersetujui.

    Hasilnya, Konvensyen 1974 telah diperbaharui dan diubah secara berkali-kali. Konvensyen yang berlaku hari ini kadang-kadang disebut sebagai SOLAS, 1974, seperti yang dipinda.

    Reaksi IMO terhadap keadaan darurat besar tentunya dapat dibandingkan dengan tindak balas antarabangsa terhadap bencana Titanic pada tahun 1912. Walaupun persidangan antarabangsa yang diadakan oleh Inggeris bertemu pada tahun 1914 dan mengadopsi Konvensyen SOLAS yang pertama, ini tidak berlaku kerana wabak tersebut Perang Dunia I dan Konvensyen SOLAS kedua tidak diadopsi sehingga tahun 1929. Ia mula berkuat kuasa pada tahun 1933, lebih dari dua puluh tahun setelah kemalangan yang menyebabkannya berlaku.

    COLREGS (Peraturan perlanggaran) hari ini

    Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight as well as by hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision.

    Ship Statistics

    • Built by Harland and Wolff, Belfast, Ireland
    • Hull Number 401
    • British Board of Trade Registry Number 131,428
    • Length 882'
    • Width 92'
    • Height from keel to bridge 104'
    • Gross Tonnage 46,328 tons
    • Number of Decks 9 - Boat Deck, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Orlop Deck
    • Watertight Compartments 16
    • Number of Engines 3 - Two reciprocating 4-cylinder, triple expansion, direct action, inverted engines and one Parsons (low pressure) turbine
    • Horsepower Reciprocating - 30,000 hp at 75 rpm Parsons turbine - 16,000 hp at 165 rpm
    • Number of Boilers 29
    • Number of Propellers 3 - Center: 16' and Left/Right Wings: 23'
    • Lifeboats 20 Total 2 "Emergency Boats", Capacity 40 14 Regular Wooden, Capacity 65 4 Collapsible, Capacity 47
    • Total Lifeboat Capacity 1,178
    • People Rescued from Titanic Lifeboats
    • Ship Capacity (passengers and crew) Over 3,000
    • Souls On-Board April 14, 1912 Approximately 2,228
    • Captain Edward J. Smith
    • Chief Officer Henry F. Wilde
    • First Officer William M.Murdoch
    • Second Officer Charles H. Lightoller
    • Third Officer Herbert J. Pitman
    • Fourth Officer Joseph G. Boxhall
    • Fifth Officer Harold G. Lowe
    • Sixth Officer James P. Moody

    Appendix A :Titanic layout

    The above shows the relationship between

    I. Forecastle (where the cargo crane is shown)

    II. Crows Nest on the forward mast where the lookouts were stationed

    III. Bridge where the Watch Officers were conning the vessel

    Rujukan

    1. U.S. Senate Subcommittee of the Committee on Commerce, Titanic Inquiry, 1912
    2. Mersey, Report on the loss of The Titanic, 1912
    3. SOLAS Convention of 1914
    4. IMO,History of IMO, Website www.imo.org
    5. Encyclopedia Titanica,Website www.encyclopedia-titanica.org
    6. Garzke, Jr., William H. and Woodward, John, Titanic Ships Titanic Disasters, SNAME 2002
    7. Marine Forensic Panel (SD-7) Titanic, Anatomy of a Disaster, 1997
    8. Lord, Walter, A Night To Remember, 1956
    9. Titanic Inquiry Project, www.titanicinquiry.org
    10. Gittins, D. http://users.senet.com.au/

    Maine Maritime Academy Titanic NS-415 Spring 2003 Captain Charles B. Weeks


    TITANIC: History's Most Famous Ship

    We all know that Titanic did indeed hit an iceberg. It happened at 11:40pm on April 14th. The iceberg was spotted by Lookouts Fredrick Fleet and Reginald Lee only 37 seconds before impact. It has even been suggested that 1st Officer Murdoch may have seen the berg and was already taking action moments before the lookouts had notified the bridge. Nevertheless, the iceberg was too close to be avoided by a ship of Titanic's size. In fact, Titanic was so big that the impact was only felt by a fraction of all the people on board. The impact was described as only a vibration, a slight pause in the movement of the ship, or the sensation of "rolling over a thousand marbles" as one passenger testified. It seemed to be a case of curiosity rather than alarm. After all, Titanic was an unsinkable ship. There would be no cause for concern.

    The Damage

    Example of Titanic "grounding" on the iceberg.
    It has long been believed that Titanic sideswiped the iceberg and that all the damage was located along the starboard side beneath the waterline. Even though there is evidence of damage along the starboard side, it is highly unlikely that Titanic suffered damage to that area only.
    Most of an iceberg's mass is underneath the surface of the water. When Titanic struck the berg, there is a good chance that ice hidden below the surface caused damage to the underside of the ship as well. The odds of ice not being there would be extremely rare. The scenario of Titanic "grounding" on ice actually fits better with the descriptions of the impact provided by the passengers and crew. Today, there is more evidence to prove that there was grounding damage as well as the side damage to the ship.

    What did the iceberg look like?
    There were many icebergs visible the morning after the sinking, and several photos were taken of icebergs either on this day or a few days later by passing ships. Out of the photos that were taken, three icebergs have been given special attention.

    Photo of the Prinz-Adalbert iceberg.
    One of the icebergs in question was photographed by the Chief Steward of the German ocean liner Prinz-Adalbert. This iceberg was given the reputation of being the berg that sank Titanic due to it being in the approximate vicinity to the sinking, and what appeared to be a red paint smear at its base. Even though this iceberg is generally accepted as the culprit, it does not fit the description of the testimonies given at the British inquiries.

    Photo of the De Carteret iceberg.
    Another iceberg that could possibly be the culprit was photographed by Captain De Carteret of the vessel Minia, a cable ship that was chartered by the White Star Line to recover bodies that were still floating on the surface. The ship arrived at the scene 11 days after Titanic sank. The iceberg was spotted near the location of the sinking with bodies and wreckage in the vicinity. Still, this iceberg doesn't fit the description of the testimonies given.

    On April 20th, the German steamer Bremen sailed into the area of the disaster. The passengers on board could see wreckage and the bodies of more than a hundred victims floating on the surface.
    Stephan Rehorek was on board and witnessed this horrible scene. He took a photo of an iceberg that was nearby. What Rehorek didn't know at the time was that he was taking a photograph of an iceberg that matched the eyewitness testimony of Titanic's seaman Joseph Scarrott.

    "Well, it struck me at the time that it resembled the Rock of Gibraltar. It looked very much the same shape as that, only much smaller."

    "As you approach Gibraltar - it seemed that shape. The highest point would be on my right, as it appeared to me."

    The iceberg described by Scarrott was one that closely resembled the Rock of Gibraltar, but inverted with the high point on the right. This also seems to be the same view that Rehorek had when he took the photograph. The iceberg also had areas with fresh ice exposed indicating that pieces had recently broken off, or that the berg had suffered damage somehow.

    It will never be known for sure, but out of all the photos taken of the icebergs in vicinity of the sinking, the Rehorek iceberg seems to be the most likely culprit. It's location, appearance, and size seems to be the best match with eye witness testimony.

    Photo of the Rehorek iceberg.

    The Rock of Gibraltar

    Prinz-Adalbert iceberg from "A Night To Remember" (1958)
    In The Movies
    In the 1958 film "A Night To Remember", a recreation of the Prinz-Adalbert berg was used. Then in 1997, James Cameron who is known for being a perfectionist decided to use the Rehorek berg for his film "Titanic" to better fit historical accounts.

    Rehorek iceberg from "Titanic" (1997)

    The Mirage Effect
    For decades the theory has been that the reason for the lookouts not seeing the iceberg in time was due to the fact that there was no moon, the ocean was dead calm and therefore no crashing waves at the base, and that the iceberg was a clear or dark color. During the American inquiries, Lookout Fredrick Fleet gave testimonies of what he saw. He never did describe what the iceberg looked like. That was mainly because what he saw was a dark mass that blocked out the stars on the horizon.

    In 2012, researcher Tim Maltin released his six-year study on why the lookouts couldn't see the iceberg in time. He believes a mirage effect was created by air currents that rushed across the cold surface of the water had caused an optical illusion of a false horizon. Similar to the mirage effect seen on a hot street during a summer's day.

    Maltin analyzed previously unseen weather records taken from more than 75 ship's logs from the week the Titanic sank. He found that a unique set of weather conditions caused an abnormal bending of light known as "refraction." Even though there were clear conditions that night, the mirage horizon camouflaged the iceberg and caused the lookouts to spot it too late.

    "For years Titanic's lookouts were not believed when they said the iceberg came out of a haze on that clear night, but now we know they were telling the truth."

    "It's nice to know that so many lives were not lost simply as a result of avoidable human mistake, but that it was a set of circumstances so peculiar that the crew were caught out."

    "Several of the logbooks I found recorded miraging and abnormal refraction, which are common in cold water areas, such as the Labrador Current."

    Maltin found that the cold water of the Labrador Current had only recently arrived at Titanic's crash site, cooling the warm air of the Gulf Stream, from the bottom up. This created a strong thermal inversion, where warm air lies above cold air and causes light to bend. To the Titanic's lookouts, the horizon would have appeared higher than normal and disguised the iceberg's outline.


    Archie Jewell

    Archie Jewell was a Lookout serving aboard the maiden voyage of RMS Titanic. Four years after surviving the sinking of Titanic he was aboard Titanic s sister ship Britannic when she was sunk by an enemy mine.

    He was born in Bude, Cornwall, United Kingdom on 4th December 1888.His parents were John and Elizabeth Jewell. At some point he married Bessie Heard, and in around 1916, had a son they named Raymond.

    His last ship before sailing on Titanic was the White Star Line s RMS Oceanic. Prior to his time aboard Oceanic he had worked aboard sailing ships. At Southampton, he signed on as one of Titanic s Lookouts on 6th April 1912, ready to join the ship for her maiden voyage on 10th April 1912.

    Throughout the voyage, he shared the 2am to 4am, 8am to 10am, 2pm to 4pm and 8pm to 10 pm watch in Titanic s crow s nest with George Symons. While he was on watch in the crow s nest at around 9.30pm on 14th April 1912, the order was received over the telephone from the bridge to keep a sharp lookout for ice, and to pass the order on to the next lookouts on duty when they leave.

    At 10pm, when Frederick Fleet and Reginal Lee took over the watch in the crow s nest, the order was passed along. Around 1 hour and 40 minutes later Titanic fatally collided with an iceberg.

    At the time Titanic collided with the iceberg Archie Jewell was sleeping in his bed in the ship s forecastle, when he was woken up by the impact. With others he went straight on deck to see what had happened. He then went back inside and got dressed.

    After the order for all hands on deck, he helped prepare the lifeboats on the Boat Deck to be lowered. Around an hour after the time Titanic collided with the iceberg, Archie Jewells was amongst those lowered away from Titanic in Lifeboat 7, the very first lifeboat to leave the sinking ship. Archie Jewell and the other occupants of Lifeboat 7 were safely rescued by Carpathia. He returned home to Britain aboard Red Star Line s SS Lapland.

    On 3rd May 1912 he became the first Titanic survivor to give evidence at the British Titanic Inquiry.

    During the First World War, he was amongst the crew serving aboard Titanic s sister ship Britannic, on 21st November 1916, as she sailed serving as a hospital ship, through the Kea Channel on her way to pick up wounded soldiers suddenly there was a massive explosion as she hit a mine and started to sink. It took just 55 minutes for Britannic to sink, much quicker than her sister ship Titanic.

    A letter sold at auction many years later, written by Archie Jewell to his sister, describes how in the lifeboat he could see another lifeboat being mangled by Britannic's propeller blades, and the same thing was about to happen to his lifeboat, so he had to jump out of the lifeboat into the sea, into absolute chaos seemingly thinking he was going to die, he did manage to survive the ordeal. While Britannic s captain, Charles Bartlett, was attempting to beach the ship, without his orders, two lifeboats had been lowered away from the ship, and, with Britannic s propellers almost out of the water, the lifeboats were sucked towards the propellers, causing devastation. Titanic survivor Violet Jessop, a stewardess aboard Titanic, was a survivor of Britannic and was lucky to be alive after she had jumped out of one of the lifeboats destroyed by the propellers. Also amongst those who survived Britannic was John Priest, a fireman aboard Titanic.

    Less than a year later, on 17th April 1917, almost exactly 5 years after Titanic s sinking, Archie Jewell was serving aboard the Donegal as an Able Seaman, when she was struck by a torpedo and sank in the English Channel. Donegal was a hospital ship sailing from France to Britain with wounded soldiers aboard. Around 29 soldiers lost their lives and around 11 of the ship s crew also lost their lives. Amongst those to have died was Archie Jewell. Titanic and Britannic survivor John Priest was amongst the survivors of Donegal.

    Archie Jewell s last resting place is presumably in the English Channel. His name is included on the memorial at the grave of his wife and son in Burlescombe, Devon. Archie Jewell s name is included on the war memorial in his hometown, Bude, Cornwall, and is also included on the Tower Hill Memorial in London, a memorial to those who died during the World Wars while serving in the Merchant Navy or in fishing fleets and have no grave.

    Two letters written by Archie Jewell to his sister, one shortly after the Titanic disaster and one shortly after the Britannic disaster, were sold at auction in London for 17,500 in December 2008.


    Titanic Museum

    You step into friendly, nostalgic 1950s “Happy Days” hometown America at 208 Main Street, Indian Orchard, home of the world-famous Titanic Historical Society Collection where you will relive authentic 1912 at the Titanic Museum, the vision of Edward S. Kamuda. Throughout the intimate landmark museum, visitors will see Titanic legends come to life. A tribute to the ill-fated liner, rare artifacts tell stories of passengers and crew. You will learn more about Titanic history and have lots of fun.

    The atmosphere is very informal and enjoyable for the whole family. Personally hosted by the Kamudas, the founding family, who readily answer your questions about Titanic and the displays.

    The Titanic Historical Society’s (THS) collection, one of its greatest strengths, is its collected works of rare Titanic survivor artifacts, one of the finest anywhere. Many were donated by the survivors themselves to THS’s founder and president, Edward S. Kamuda in the 1960s through the 80s, the organization’s early years.

    The collection covers a broad scope of Titanic’s rich history, from original blueprints of her tank top donated by her builders, Harland & Wolff, to the 21st century where the ship has become a popular icon from movies and TV. From merchandise to movies, you will see souvenirs and sheet music produced right after the sinking to colorful film posters illustrating the drama from the 1950s to the present.

    Titanic’s brave officers, crew and all the passenger classes are represented stories of courage, adventure and even humor about other times and other places and people like our grandparents.

    Titanic’s collision with an iceberg is a chronicle of “What Ifs” and you will see a very important artifact in Titanic history––the Wireless Message received by Titanic stating the location of the fatal iceberg that never made it to the bridge!

    One of the most famous and the wealthiest were the John Jacob Astors. Mrs. Astor’s lifejacket is one of THS’s treasured mementos.

    The original story in 1913 that became the best-selling, Polar, the Titanic Bear, by her great-grand nephew, Leighton Coleman III, written and cover sketch by first-class survivor, Daisy Corning Spedden is here.

    Newly married Selena Rogers Cook, traveling second class, was coming to Connecticut. She saved the clothes she wore and the articles in her pocketbook, sent postcards and even saved a tooth that bothered her on the voyage!

    The Goldsmith family booked passage in third class, left England to settle in Detroit, Michigan nine-year-old Frankie lost his dad and his best friend in the sinking artifacts and his personal recollections in Titanic Eyewitness My Story, published by the Titanic Historical Society, are here.

    An outstanding artifact is Olympic’s bridge bell, truly the heart of a ship, the beautiful bronze bell can be seen not only as the most important legacy of the Olympic-class but also as a tribute to her two sisters, Titanic and Britannic.

    The awesome view from Titanic’s crow’s nest on the night of April 14 comes to life in lookout Fred Fleet’s drawing of the iceberg.

    Trimmer Ernest Allen’s Seamen’s Discharge Book notes the date Titanic sank and when his pay stopped.

    The rescue ship Carpathia’s first class dinner menu portrays a serene picture on the fateful night of Sunday, April 14, a few hours before the chaos of Titanic’s collision.

    A huge bronze bell engraved with a delicate Edwardian filigree from the Halifax, Nova Scotia cable vessel MacKay-Bennett is here, known as the funeral ship because she retrieved most of Titanic’s victims and is a powerful reminder of the men, women and children who lost their lives. Another poignant piece from the ill-fated ship is a bronze White Star flag, removed from a lifeboat on Carpathia’s arrival in New York.

    A good starting point is the mammoth, nearly 9-foot Titanic model that dominates the entrance showing in minute detail what the largest ship in the world looked like in 1912. The rest of the White Star family can be seen in an impressive miniature model collection featuring a panorama of the White Star Line highlighting famous vessels, each with its own special story, from the late 1800s, to the grand Olympic-class and Titanic, to Georgic and Britannic of the 1930s, even the tiny tenders that brought passengers aboard!

    Titanic was powered by gigantic, reciprocating engines and you’ll see a stunning three-dimensional model that actually works. Another exhibit to inspect is a model of Titanic’s rudder and three propellers made in the same scale as the engines.

    Passengers in first class dined in exquisite splendor and you can examine selections of the ship’s fine English china and place settings, even a carved oak chair from the dining room then make a comparison with the modest accommodations in third class. Second class passenger Edwina Troutt described Titanic’s luxury to her cousin, Gladys in her letter written aboard Titanic.

    The Titanic Museum is committed to giving each object the best possible care. Conservation means adding new items while resting others and some that are listed here may not always be displayed and/or may be on loan to the Titanic Museum Attraction in Branson, Missouri.

    Research is essential to the work of preservation and restoration of our exhibits. Unique to our museum is that awareness that you can read in The Titanic Commutator, documenting ships and survivors’ stories, published quarterly by the Titanic Historical Society since 1963 and available in our Museum Store. Join as a THS member and receive the Commutator as part of your annually renewable membership. Everyone at the Titanic Museum is extremely friendly and helpful and the Museum store offers many exclusive Titanic gifts, fine art prints, White Star Line reproductions and maritime history books. Something for everyone is in the full inventory of specialty merchandise including Barbara Kamuda’s hand-crafted jewelry. Not only are these wonderful items available in the store, but also you can order by surface mail and through our online catalog.

    Whether you live just down the street, across the country, next door in Canada, across the sea in Ireland, Britain, or halfway around the world in Japan, your life has been affected by this ship in ways you might never have imagined. For those who love Titanic and the glamorous ocean liners of the past and, are eager to broaden their horizons and travel through time with Titanic’s passengers and crew, come visit and explore the Titanic Museum.


    Blair’s sudden reshuffle from the Titanic

    David Blair had been originally appointed as the Second Officer of the Titanic. He has accompanied the ship at its trial voyages to test its functionalities at open sea. However, his final journey was from Belfast, the place where the Titanic was constructed, to Southampton from where the ship took off for the disastrous cross-Atlantic trip.

    The iceberg which probably has been hit by Titanic, photographed by the chief steward of the liner Prinz Adalbert on the morning of 15th April 1912. The iceberg was reported to have a streak of red paint from a ship’s hull along its waterline on one side

    The White Star Line decided to appoint Chief Officer, Henry Wilde to take a position on Titanic. This was done at the last moment, just a few days before the departure on 10th April 1912. The previous post of Wilde had been at the Titanic‘s sister ship, the RMS Olimpik, and he was given the position on Titanic thanks to his experience with ships of the same caliber.

    The reshuffle of the crew meant that Chief Officer William Murdoch and First Officer Charles Lightoller were demoted one-step rank, which has resulted in having Blair removed from the command table.

    The reshuffle was a huge disappointed for Blair. He has written in a postcard to his sister-in-law days before the Titanic left for Southampton, saying that:”This is a magnificent ship. I feel very disappointed I am not to make her first voyage”.


    Frederick Fleet

    Frederick Fleet was a Lookout aboard Titanic. He was the man who alerted the officers on Titanic s bridge of the iceberg. He joined Titanic in Belfast, ready for the ship to sail to Southampton for her maiden voyage, and remained with the ship for that voyage.


    Frederick Fleet

    He was born on 15th October 1887 in Liverpool, UK. His mother was Alice Fleet his father, not married to his mother, is unknown. In a letter written to Edward Kamuda of the Titanic Historical Society written in the 1960 s Frederick explained that he did not know who his parents were, his mother had left when he was a baby, having gone to a place [in America] called Springfield, Mass and that he had been brought up in a Dr Barnardo s home. He goes on to say in the letter that when he was 12 he went to a training school until he became an Able Seaman.

    Prior to joining the Titanic, Frederick Fleet had served with the White Star Line for some seven years, and had spent the previous about four years before joining Titanic as a lookout aboard White Star Line s RMS Oceanic.

    Aboard Titanic Frederick Fleet spent two hours at a time on watch in the crow s nest with fellow lookout Reginald Lee after completing his two hours in the crow s nest he then had four hours off duty, before then having to return for another two hours. He and Reginald Lee worked the, day and night, 4 to 6 and 10 to 12 watch.

    At around 10pm on Sunday 14th April, he and Reginald Lee walked up the ladder inside the ship s mast to make their way up to the crow s nests for, as it turned out, the very last time. Before leaving them, the lookouts who worked the previous watch, Archie Jewell and George Symons, informed them that they had been ordered by the bridge to keep a sharp lookout for ice.

    Standing in the freezing cold on the port side of the crow s nest at around 11.40pm Frederick Fleet become one of the first two people the other , of course, being Reginald Lee to notice the iceberg Frederick Fleet rang the warning bell three times, dashed to the other side of the crow s nest, picked up the telephone connected to the bridge, and when he got a response, asking what he had seen, he said Iceberg right ahead 6th Officer James Moody, on the other end of the telephone, replied back with Thank you . Despite Frederick s warning Titanic collided with the iceberg, fatally wounding herself.

    For around 20 minutes after the impact they remained in the crow s nest until they were relieved by Lookouts Alfred Evans and George Hogg.

    After going to help on the Boat Deck, he was ordered into Lifeboat 6 by 2nd Officer Charles Lightoller. Lifeboat 6, one of the first to leave the port side of the ship, is well known for being the lifeboat in which Margaret Molly Brown escaped in.

    After the disaster Frederick Fleet gave evidence at both the British and American Titanic inquiries.

    Frederik Fleet's career after Titanic will need more research it is said he briefly went to work on Olympic for a short few months before then moving to other companies, including the Union-Castle Line.

    In a letter to Edward Kamuda in the 1960 s he said that he left the sea in 1936 and that Olympic was his last ship. He must have been mistaken about the exact year which is understandable as close to 30 years had passed by this point Olympic had made her last voyage a year earlier, in 1935. The National Archives website says that he served aboard Olympic from 1920 to 1935 as a Lookout and Able Seaman. Olympic was, of course, Titanic s near identical sister ship. .

    After the end of his sea days, he is also said to have worked for Harland and Wolff in Southampton, and for the Union-Castle line as a shore Master-at-Arms. In his later years he worked as a street newspaper seller. On a least two occasions in his later years he gave newspaper interviews about Titanic.

    On 17th June 1917 he had married Eva LeGros. They had a daughter, named Dorothy, who was born on 28th November 1918. At some point Frederick had legally separated from his wife but in the early 1960 s or very late 1950 s he had moved back in with her, into the house she shared with her brother, Philip LeGros, as Frederick had suffered mental blackouts and doctors had advised Eva that she was legally responsible for Frederick.

    Eva died on 29th December 1964. It is said that it was agreed and understood that when she died he would have to move out of the house, owned by Philip LeGros.

    In early January 1965 Frederick had threatened to commit suicide, and around a week later visited his daughter house and was upset. Before he left her he told her to say goodbye to everybody for him, and gave her a wallet with 5 in for her to look after.

    Frederick had told Philip LeGros that he was going to stay with friends until he could get accommodation. The next day Frederick left him a note saying that if he was not home between 9 or 10 tonight to lock up as he would be staying with the friends. When Philip checked Frederick s room at 11.30pm he noted that he was not there and assumed he was staying with friends.

    The next day, 10th January 1965, at around 9.30am, Philip went outside to his coal house seeing Frederik and receiving no reply after calling him in for a cup of tea Frederick Fleet had committed suicide by hanging himself from a clothes post in the garden, aged 77. With him was a letter to his daughter explaining that he was sorry for what he was going to do and that he could not stick it any longer. Also in the letter he listed his possessions in his bedroom which she was to have.

    He was buried at Hollybrook Cemetery, Southampton. In 1993 the Titanic Historical Society paid for and had erected a memorial head stone for Frederick Fleet's grave. With an image of Titanic, inscribed on it are:


    Tonton videonya: Where Did All the Bodies From Titanic Disappear To? (Mungkin 2022).